Ancient Egyptian cuisine A replica of ancient Egyptian beer, brewed from emmer wheat by the Courage brewery in As almost any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like drinks were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced about 3, BC in what is today Iranand was one of the first-known biological engineering tasks where the biological process of fermentation is used. Also, archaeological findings show that Chinese villagers were brewing fermented alcoholic drinks as far back as BC on small and individual scale, with the production process and methods similar to that of ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia.
Into this rich economy and culture writing - the most important invention between the advent of agriculture and the age of the steam engine - was introduced around B. The Sumerian invention of writing was probably rather sudden, based on new needs for commercial, property, and political records including a celebration of the deeds of proud local kings.
Writing was preceded by the invention of clay cylinder seals, on which little pictures of objects could be recorded. The earliest Sumerian writing simply evolved from these pictures baked on clay tablets, which were turned into symbols and gradually transformed into phonetic elements.
The early Sumerian alphabet - set of symbols representing sounds - may have had as many as symbols derived from the early pictures. Before long writers began to use more abstract symbols to represent sounds which allowed Sumerians and their successors to reduce the alphabet to about symbols.
Sumerian writers used a wedge-shaped stick to impress the symbols on clay tablets. The resulting writing is called cuneiform, meaning "wedge shaped," and it was used for several thousand years in the Middle East for many different languages. Cuneiform writing was difficult to learn, so specialized scribes monopolized most of it, but the Sumerians in fact believed that every object in nature should have a separate name to assure its place in the universe; knowing the name gave a person some power over the object.
Writing, in other words, quickly took on essentially religious purposes, allowing people to impose an abstract order over nature and the social world. Sumerian civilization lasted intact until about B.
Its political organization was based on tightly organized city-states, where the agricultural hinterland was ruled by an urban-based king who claimed great authority. In some cases local councils advised the king.
One of the functions of Sumerian states was to define boundaries, unlike the less formal territories of precivilized villages in the region. The government helped regulate religion and enforce its duties. It also provided a system of courts for justice. Kings were originally war leaders whose leadership of a trained army in defense and war remained vital in Sumerian politics where fighting loomed large.
Kings, the noble class, and the priesthood controlled considerable land. Slaves, conquered in wars with nearby tribes, were used to work this land. Sumerian political and social organization set up traditions that would long endure in this region. City-state government established a tradition of regional rule, that would often be overlaid by larger empires but would frequently return as the principal organizational form.
The reliance on slaves was maintained in the economy of many successor civilizations. Use of slaves along with the lack of natural barriers to invasion help explain recurrent warfare, for war was often needed to supply labor. At the same time, slavery in the Middle Eastern tradition was a variable condition, and many slaves were able to earn their own keep and even buy their freedom.
The Sumerians, aided by regional political stability and the use of writing, added to their region's economic prosperity. Agriculture gained as farmers learned how to cultivate date trees, onions, and garlic. Oxen were used to pull plows, donkeys to carry goods.
Wheeled carts helped transport goods as well. The Sumerians introduced the use of fertilizer and adopted silver as a means of exchange for buying and selling.
Major cities expanded - one city reached a population of over 70, - with substantial housing units in rows of flat-roofed, mud-brick shops and apartments. More commonly, cities contained as many as 10, people.
The Sumerians improved the potter's wheel, which expanded the production of pottery. Because of the skill level and commercial importance involved, men began to take the trade away from women. The Sumerians also invented glass.
Trade expanded to the lower Persian Gulf and to the western portion of the Middle East along the Mediterranean. The Sumerians also steadily elaborated their culture, again using writing to advance earlier forms. By about B. Gilgamesh, a real person who had ruled a city-state, became the first hero in world literature.The role of women is a very important topic in "The Epic of Gilgamesh," and various women are chosen to represent various aspects of the mesopotamian conception of women.
In the ancient times males were inessential to the preservation of life. Role of Women in The Epic of Gilgamesh Essay Words 4 Pages About years ago there lived a king by the name of Gilgamesh who ruled the city of Uruk in Mesopotamia now known to us as modern day Iraq.
Attending College Is A Life Changing Experience - For many Americans, the event of attending college is a life changing experience; this experience is meant to enhance an individual’s knowledge of a specific subject matter, and to broaden that person’s cultural horizons.
Fate/Grand Order is a mobile phone game entry in the massively popular Fate franchise with more than 15 million players for the Japanese version and 4 million players for the American version, developed jointly by Type-Moon and mobile company DelightWorks and published in cooperation with Aniplex, as part of the larger schwenkreis.com is a re-imagining of the original Fate/Apocrypha game project.
All of the text we have read this semester reflect male dominated cultures, yet in all of them, women play very important roles.
In the text the we've read, Hamlet, Gilgamesh, and The Odyssey, women played a small role, yet there are the driving factors for the actions of many other characters.
The Rise Of Civilization In The Middle East And Africa. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Date: Introduction. The first full civilization emerged by B.C. in the Tigris-Euphrates.