Today we are able to tell the story of the Lutheran Reformation together. Even though Lutherans and Catholics have different points of view, because of ecumenical dialogue they are able to overcome traditional anti-Protestant and anti-Catholic hermeneutics in order to find a common way of remembering past events. The following chapter is not a full description of the entire history and all the disputed theological points.
Sistine ChapelVatican City The Last Judgmenta fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo —came under persistent attack in the Counter-Reformation for, among other things, nudity later painted over for several centuriesnot showing Christ seated or bearded, and including the pagan figure of Charon.
Italian painting afterwith the notable exception of the art of Venicedeveloped into Mannerisma highly sophisticated style striving for effect, that concerned many churchmen as lacking appeal for the mass of the population. Church pressure to restrain religious imagery affected art from the s and resulted in the decrees of the final session of the Council of Trent in including short and rather inexplicit passages concerning religious images, which were to have great impact on the development of Catholic art.
Previous Catholic councils had rarely felt the need to pronounce on these matters, unlike Orthodox ones which have often ruled on specific types of images. The decree confirmed the traditional doctrine that images only represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid to the person, not the image, and further instructed that: And that these things may be the more faithfully observed, the holy Synod ordains, that no one be allowed to place, or cause to be placed, any unusual image, in any place, or church, howsoever exempted, except that image have been approved of by the bishop Much traditional iconography considered without adequate scriptural foundation was in effect prohibited, as was any inclusion of classical pagan elements in religious art, and almost all nudity, including that of the infant Jesus.
However, the council's pronouncements on music were not the first attempt at reform. The Catholic Church had spoken out against a perceived abuse of music used in the mass before the Council of Trent ever convened to discuss music in The manipulation of the Credo and using non-liturgical songs was addressed inand secular singing and the intelligibility of the text in the delivery of psalmody in Several voices singing different texts in different languages made any of the text difficult to distinguish from the mixture of words and notes.
The parody mass would then contain melodies usually the tenor line and words from songs that could have been, and often were, on sensual subjects. The Council of Paris, which met inas well as the Council of Trent were making attempts to restore the sense of sacredness to the church setting and what was appropriate for the mass.
The councils were simply responding to issues of their day. The 22nd session of the council, which met indealt with church music in Canon 8 in the section of "Abuses in the Sacrifice of the Mass" during a meeting of the council on September 10, Everything should be regulated so that the Masses, whether they be celebrated with the plain voice or in song, with everything clearly and quickly executed, may reach the ears of the hearers and quietly penetrate their hearts.
In those Masses where measured music and organ are customary, nothing profane should be intermingled, but only hymns and divine praises. If something from the divine service is sung with the organ while the service proceeds, let if first be recited in a simple, clear voice, lest the reading of the sacred words be imperceptible.
But the entire manner of singing in musical modes should be calculated not to afford vain delight to the ear, but so that the words may be comprehensible to all; and thus may the hearts of the listeners be caught up into the desire for celestial harmonies and contemplation of the joys of the blessed.
In fact, the delegates at the council never officially accepted canon 8 in its popular form but bishops of Granada, Coimbra, and Segovia pushed for the long statement about music to be attenuated and many other prelates of the council joined enthusiastically. It is possible, however, that some of the Fathers had proposed such a measure.
But Ferdinand was most likely an alarmist and read into the council the possibility of a total ban on polyphony. The legend goes that Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina c. Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli Mass for Pope Marcellus was performed before the council and received such a welcoming reception among the delegates that they completely changed their minds and allowed polyphony to stay in use in the musical liturgy.
Therefore, Palestrina came to be named the "saviour of church polyphony". This legend, though unfounded, has long been a mainstay of histories of music. The Pope Marcellus Mass, in short, was not important in its own day and did not help save church polyphony.
His composition in four-parts, Precesmarks the "official turning point of the Counter Reformation's a cappella ideal. In the 24th session the council gave authority to "Provincial Synods" to discern provisions for church music.
Church musicians were probably influenced by order from their ecclesiastical patrons. Though Borromeo was an aide to the pope in Rome and was unable to be in Milan, he eagerly pushed for the decrees of the council to be quickly put into practice in Milan. In one of his letters to his vicar in the Milan diocese, Nicolo Ormaneto of Verona, Borromeo commissioned the master of the chapel, Vincenzo Ruffo —to write a mass that would make the words as easy to understand as possible.Why the Protestant Reformation Failed!.
by Frank M.
Walker. from a tract by. Raymond Clark, DD "Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.". Here is a lively study of marriage and the family during the Reformation, primarily in Gemany and Switzerland, that dispels the commonly held notion of fathers as tyrannical and families as loveless.
The Counter-Reformation (Latin: Contrareformatio), also called the Catholic Reformation (Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (–) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War ().
Initiated to preserve the power, influence and material. schwenkreis.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want. When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe (Studies in Cultural History) rd Edition.
Introduction. 1. In , Lutheran and Catholic Christians will commemorate together the th anniversary of the beginning of the Reformation.