Different types of schools

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Different types of schools

The word yeshivalit. Likewise, every beth din "house of judgement" was attended by a number of pupils up to three times the size of the court Mishnahtractate Sanhedrin.

These might be indications of the historicity of the classical yeshiva. The rest of the year, they worked. Geonic Period[ edit ] The Geonic period takes its name from Gaonthe title bestowed on the heads of the three yeshivas in existence from the third to the thirteenth century.

The Geonim acted as the principals of their individual yeshivot, and as spiritual leaders and high judges for the wider communities tied to them. The yeshiva conducted all official business in the name of its Gaon, and all correspondence to or from the yeshiva was addressed directly to the Gaon.

Throughout the Geonic Period there were three yeshivot. These were named for the cities in which they were located: JerusalemSuraand Pumbedita ; the yeshiva of Jerusalem would later relocate to Cairoand the yeshivot of Sura and Pumbedita to Baghdadbut retain their original names.

Each Jewish community would associate itself with one of the three yeshivot; Jews living around the Mediterranean typically followed the yeshiva in Jerusalem, while those living in the Arabian Peninsula and modern-day Iraq and Iran typically followed one of the two yeshivot in Baghdad.

There was however, no requirement for this, and each community could choose to associate with any of the yeshivot. The yeshiva served as the highest educational institution for the Rabbis of this period. In addition to this, the yeshiva wielded immense power as the principal body for interpreting Jewish law.

In this regard, the community saw the Gaon of a yeshiva as the highest judge on all matters of Jewish law. Each yeshiva ruled differently on matters of ritual and law; the other yeshivot accepted these divisions, and all three ranked as equally orthodox.

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The yeshiva also served as an administrative authority, in conjunction with local communities, by appointing members to serve as the head of local congregations. Those appointed as the head of a congregation would serve as a go-between for the local congregation and the larger yeshiva it was attached to.

These local leaders would also submit questions to the yeshiva to obtain final rulings on issues of dogma, ritual, or law. Each congregation was expected to follow only one yeshiva to prevent conflict with different rulings issued by different yeshivot.

The yeshivot were financially supported through a number of means. There were fixed, but voluntary, yearly contributions made to the yeshivas; these annual contributions were collected and handled by the local leaders appointed by the yeshiva.

Private gifts and donations from individuals were also common, especially during holidays, and could consist of money or goods. The yeshiva of Jerusalem was finally forced into exile in Cairo inand eventually dispersed entirely.

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Likewise, the yeshivot of Sura and Pumbedita were dispersed following the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. After the scattering of the yeshiva, education in Jewish religious studies became the responsibility of individual synagogues.

No organization ever came to replace the three great yeshivot of Jerusalem, Sura and Pumbedita. One of these include the Kairuan yeshiva in Spain Hebrew: Their cost of living was covered by community taxation. After a number of years, these young people would either take up a vacant rabbinical position elsewhere after obtaining semicharabbinical ordination or join the workforce.

In his view, the traditional arrangement did not cater for those who were looking for more intensive study. With the support of his teacher, Rabbi Volozhin gathered a large number of interested students and started a yeshiva in the now Belarusian town of Volozhin.

Many prominent contemporary yeshivot in the United States and Israel are continuations of these institutions and often bear the same name. In the 19th century, Rabbi Israel Salanter initiated the Mussar movement in non-Hasidic Lithuanian Jewry, which sought to encourage yeshiva students and the wider community to spend regular times devoted to the study of Jewish ethical works.Types of Private Schools.

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Different types of schools
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